We have previously provided an introduction to the meaning and implications of antibiotic resistance including a brief discussion on the action plan on antimicrobial resistance as provided by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Here we bring you added information as we continue to join advocacy efforts at combating the current increase in global antimicrobial resistance.
Antimicrobial drugs play a very critical role in the treatment and prevention of varying disease conditions in animals, humans, aquaculture and even crop production. However, in light of their numerous advantages, they are constantly misused leading to antimicrobial resistance. As a result of this gross misuse of antimicrobial drugs worldwide, we now have the potential risk of emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant micro-organisms.
There are evidences that support the fact that the emergence of Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in livestock production is connected to the emergence of Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that colonize and infect the human population. It is therefore expedient to examine the different actions and activities within the Livestock sector that has inadvertently resulted into antimicrobial resistance in human. In a bid to keep diseases off a livestock farm (a poultry farm as a case study), farmers place different measures because financial sustainability and gain is of premium importance. Such measures include proper and adequate ventilation, temperature control, vaccination, biosecurity, adequate nutrition, housing, quarantine and proper spacing. As an added measure, antimicrobials are also used (albeit indiscriminately) for non-therapeutic preventive purposes to avoid future occurrence of disease conditions.
There are different factors that are crucial to the emergence of Antimicrobial resistance and they include,
Antimicrobial resistance is rising to a new higher level and there are growing list of infections that are becoming difficult and sometimes impossible to treat. This include tuberculosis, pneumonia, foodborne diseases, gonorrhea and blood poisoning. In addition resistance to tetracycline, penicillins and sulphonamides has been recorded among animals and humans alike. This scourge of antimicrobial resistance is growing at an alarming rate globally and if care is not taken, the world might be back to the dark age where common infections and minor injuries can kill easily. It is therefore expedient that individuals and professionals employ measures that will reduce the spate of antimicrobial resistance. These include taking care of the following measures.
For Veterinarians and animal care-givers
In addition, government as the policy makers obviously have key roles to play with regards to how we can put an end to antimicrobial resistance in other to save the future. These include –